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|Grape Color||Blue, Black|
|Primary Use||Juice, Wine, Jelly|
|Variety Origin||Henry Ives|
|Pseudonym (Tested As)||Not Applicable|
|Harvest Season||Late Season|
|USDA Hardiness Zone||4|
|Sulfur Sensitivity||Highly susceptible|
|Suggested Distance Between Vines||6 ft - 8 ft|
|Vine Training System||Top Wire Cordon|
|Bud Break||Mid-Season with Concord|
|Black Rot||Slightly susceptible|
|Downy Mildew||Highly susceptible|
|Powdery Mildew||Slightly susceptible|
Top Wire Cordon is arguably the most efficient training system for grapes, especially for procumbent or downward growing cultivators, especially those not prone to late season fruit rots due to shading of the fruiting zone. Summer labor is much less than that required with Vertical Shoot Positioned (VSP) training as shoot positioning and leaf pulling are generally not required.