How To Select and Use Crop Protection Products in an Integrated Vineyard Pest Management Program

Rick Dunst, Viticulturist, Double A Vineyards, Inc.

Double A Vineyards offers a full line of crop protection products available to our customers. There are several grape diseases that can cause crop loss directly, through infection of fruit, or indirectly, through loss of leaf area. Various insects feed on grape flowers, fruit, leaves, and roots, resulting in decreased productivity. Weeds can compete with grapevines for water and nutrients resulting in reduced vine capacity. While the use of cultural methods of pest control are encouraged, responsible use of pesticides is often necessary to produce full yields of high quality fruit. This article will discuss how the crop protection products we offer can be integrated into a pest management program for grapes, and offers sample disease management programs for three grape cultivars with varying levels of disease susceptibility.

The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) recognizes two classifications of pesticides: general use and restricted use. While general use pesticides can be purchased and used by anyone, only certified pesticide applicators can purchase and use (or supervise the use of) restricted use pesticides. Double A Vineyards offers only general use pesticides that are not classified as restricted use either federally or in New York State. It is the user’s responsibility to observe all restrictions and requirements pertinent to local, state, and federal guidelines concerning the use of these pesticides, including use of personal protective equipment (PPE), transportation, storage, and record keeping of pesticides. Information about requirements can be found through local or regional Cooperative Extension programs. Businesses that hire employees to handle or apply pesticides, or work in pesticide-treated crops, must also meet EPA Worker Protection Standard requirements, which may include restricted-entry intervals (REIs), use of personal protective equipment (PPE), pesticide safety training and posting, decontamination supplies, and emergency assistance. Complete information about the WPS can be found at www.epa.gov/pesticides/health/worker.htm.

Developing an effective vineyard pest management program requires an understanding of several factors including pest biology, the mode of action of pesticides used in pest management, and varietal susceptibility to vineyard pests. University and private consultant vineyard pest management guides are an important source of information, but pesticide labels can change, and it is the user’s responsibility to read and understand the label of the pesticide product being used. “Read the label, the label is the law.”

There are many sources of information that can be used to develop a vineyard pest management program, including:

 

FUNGICIDES 

Fungicide efficacy in controlling the major diseases of grapes is listed in the following table:

Fungicide Chart

Mancozeb fungicides (Dithane F-45 Rainshield, Manzate Pro-Stick) are considered the backbone of many disease management programs in grapes. Mancozeb provides protectant control of black rot, downy mildew, and Phomopsis. It is a broad-spectrum fungicide with low risk of disease resistance development.

Dithane F-45 Rainshield (mancozeb), EPA# 62719-396, READ THE LABEL

Apply Dithane F-45 at 1.2 to 3.2 qt per acre per application, do not apply more than 19.2 qt per acre per season. If applied at its maximum use rate (3.2 qt/acre), a 2.5 gallon container will cover 3.2 acres of vineyard with a single application, and may be applied up to 6 times per season. 24 hour REI, 66 day PHI.

Manzate Pro-Stick Fungicide 30 lbs (mancozeb), EPA# 70506-234, READ THE LABEL

Manzate Pro-Stick Fungicide 6 lbs (mancozeb), EPA# 70506-234, READ THE LABEL

Apply Manzate Pro-Stick at 1.5 to 4 lb per acre per application, do not apply more than 24 lb per acre per season. If applied at its maximum use rate (4 lb/acre), a 30 lb bag will cover 7.5 acres of vineyard with a single application, a 6 lb bag will cover 1.5 acres with a single application, and may be applied up to 6 times per season. 24 hour REI, 66 day PHI.

CAPTAN 50 Wettable Powder (captan), EPA# 66330-234, READ THE LABEL

Captan provides protective control of Phomopsis, downy mildew, and various “summer rots”. It also provides some control of black rot, but mancozeb and ziram are better choices for protective control of black rot under high disease pressure. It is a broad-spectrum fungicide with low risk of disease resistance development. Apply 2 to 4 lb of Captan 50 WP per acre per application, do not apply more than 24 lb per acre per season. Apply Captan 50 WP at 4 lb per acre for control of downy mildew, or at 2 to 4 lb per acre for control of Phomopsis. Do not apply with or following a spray of JMS Stylet Oil, and do not apply JMS stylet oil within 10 days of application. Captan can cause plant injury if applied with other oils, liquid insecticides, and some surfactants. Fungicide activity can be reduced if applied with lime. If applied at its maximum use rate of 4 lb per acre, a 4 lb bag of Captan 50 WP will cover 1 acre of vineyard with a single application, and may be applied up to 6 times per season. 72 hour REI, 0 day PHI. Maximum purchase 3 – 5 lb bags per DOT ground shipping regulations.

Captan 80WDG (captan), EPA# 66222-58-66330, READ THE LABEL

Captan provides protective control of Phomopsis, downy mildew, and various “summer rots”. It also provides some control of black rot, but mancozeb and ziram are better choices for protective control of black rot under high disease pressure. It is a broad-spectrum fungicide with low risk of disease resistance development. Apply 1.25 to 2.5 lb of Captan 80 WDG per acre per application, do not apply more than 15 lb per acre per season. Apply Captan 80 WDG at 2.5 lb per acre for control of downy mildew, or at 1.25 to 2.5 lb per acre for control of Phomopsis. Do not apply with or following a spray of JMS Stylet Oil, and do not apply JMS stylet oil within 10 days of application. Captan can cause plant injury if applied with other oils, liquid insecticides, and some surfactants. Fungicide activity can be reduced if applied with lime. Maximum purchase 1 – 6.25 lb bag per DOT ground shipping regulations. If applied at its maximum use rate of 2.5 lb per acre, a 6.25 lb bag will cover 2.5 acres of vineyard with a single application, and may be used up to 6 times per season. 72 hour REI, 0 day PHI. Maximum purchase 1 – 6.25 lb. bag per DOT ground shipping regulations.

Captec 4L (captan), EPA# 66330-239, READ THE LABEL

Captan provides protective control of Phomopsis, downy mildew, and various “summer rots”. It also provides some control of black rot, but mancozeb and ziram are better choices for protective control of black rot under high disease pressure. It is a broad-spectrum fungicide with low risk of disease resistance development. Apply 1 to 2 qt per acre per application, do not apply more than 12 qt per season. Apply Captec 4L at 2 qt per acre for control of downy mildew, or at 1-2 qt per acre for control of Phomopsis. Do not apply with or following a spray of JMS Stylet Oil, and do not apply JMS stylet oil within 10 days of application. Captan can cause plant injury if applied with other oils, liquid insecticides, and some surfactants. Fungicide activity can be reduced if applied with lime. If applied at its maximum use rate of 2 qt per acre, a 2.5 gal container will cover 5 acres of vineyard with a single application, and may be used up to 6 times per season. This product can only be shipped by LTL as per DOT regulations. LTL shipments require a fork lift for unloading at your location, or pickup at a Fed-Ex warehouse. 48 hour REI, 0 day PHI.

Ziram 76DF Fungicide (ziram), EPA# 70506-173, READ THE LABEL

Ziram provides protective control of black rot and Phomopsis. It also provides some control of downy mildew, but mancozeb and captan are better choices for protective control of downy mildew under high disease pressure. It is a broad-spectrum fungicide with low risk of disease resistance development. Apply Ziram 76DF at 3-4 lb per acre per application at 7-14 day intervals, do not apply more than 28 lb per acre per season. If applied at its maximum use rate of 4 lb per acre, a 10 lb bag will cover 2.5 acres of vineyard in a single application, a 40 lb bag will cover 10 acres of vineyard in a single application, and may be used up to 7 times per season. 48 hour REI, 21 day PHI.

 

Synthetic fungicides for (primarily) powdery mildew control

Double A Vineyards offers 4 different chemical groups that control the powdery mildew fungus via different modes of action. These chemical groups include:

1) The sterol inhibitor (SI), or DMI fungicides, including tebuconazole (Amtide tebuconazole® and Orius®), Rally®, Mettle®, and Revus Top®.
2) The strobilurin fungicides, including Abound® and Pristine®.
3) The azanaphthaline (quinioline) fungicide Quintec®, and
4) The benzphenone fungicide Vivando®.

The powdery mildew fungus is extremely prone to the development of disease resistant strains. Once powdery mildew resistance develops to a specific fungicide, that fungicide, AS WELL AS OTHER FUNGICIDES IN THE SAME CHEMICAL FAMILY, should no longer be depended upon to control the disease. For this reason, the use of fungicides in two or (preferably) more chemical groups effective in controlling powdery mildew should be used in a rotational program in order to delay or prevent the onset of the development of resistance. Within limitations, post-infection fungicides can be tank-mixed with synthetic fungicides to help eradicate disease once it has begun to establish. Refer to Disease Program for Grapes – Part I : Grapevine diseases and early considerations and Disease Program for Grapes – Part II : Managing grape diseases from bloom through harvest for additional information.

Amtide Tebuconazole 45 WDG (tebuconazole), EPA# 83581-4, READ THE LABEL

Tebuconazole provides effective control of powdery mildew and black rot with post-infection, antisporulant, and limited protectant activity, with moderate risk of disease resistance development. Apply tebuconazole 45 WDG at 4 oz. per acre per application and a maximum of 2 lb per season. For powdery mildew control, apply on a protective schedule with applications made 14 days (preferable in most circumstances) to 21 days apart. For black rot control, apply on a 7 to 14 day schedule, OR within 72 hours of the start of an infection period, but not within 7 days of a previous application. Tebuconazole is a sterol inhibitor (DMI) fungicide, and powdery mildew resistance to the DMI fungicides is common where they have been used for several years. Use a good resistance management strategy in your vineyard by limiting the number of DMI applications to a maximum of 3 per year, and use in a rotational program with other non-DMI powdery mildew fungicides. Rotating with other DMI fungicides is NOT an effective disease resistance management approach. If applied at its use rate of 4 oz per acre, a 2 lb bag will cover 8 acres of vineyard with a single application. 12 hour REI, 14 day PHI.

Orius 20AQ (tebuconazole), EPA#66222-128, READ THE LABEL

Orius 20 AQ is a liquid formulation of tebuconazole. Tebuconazole provides effective control of powdery mildew and black rot with post-infection, antisporulant, and limited protectant activity, with moderate risk of disease resistance development. Apply Orius at 8.6 fl oz per acre per application. For powdery mildew control, apply on a protective schedule with applications made 14 days (preferable in most circumstances) to 21 days apart. For black rot control, apply on a 7 to 14 day schedule, OR within 72 hours of the start of an infection period, but not within 7 days of a previous application. Tebuconazole is a sterol inhibitor (DMI) fungicide, and powdery mildew resistance to the DMI fungicides is common where they have been used for several years. Use a good resistance management strategy in your vineyard by limiting the number of DMI applications to a maximum of 3 per year, and use in a rotational program with other non-DMI powdery mildew fungicides. Rotating with other DMI fungicides is NOT an effective disease resistance management approach. If applied at its recommended use rate of 8.6 fl oz per acre, a 1 gallon container of Orius 20 AQ will cover 14.9 acres of vineyard with a single application. 12 hour REI, 14 day PHI.

Rally 40WSP (myclobutanil), EPA# 62719-410, READ THE LABEL

Rally provides effective control of powdery mildew, black rot, and anthracnose with post-infection, antisporulant, and limited protectant activity, with moderate risk of disease resistance development. Apply Rally at 3-5 oz per acre per application and a maximum of 1.5 pounds per season (typical application rates used in New York are 4 oz per acre for protection, and 5 oz per acre for post-infection control of black rot). Apply on a protectant schedule that does not exceed 14 days, or within 72 hours of a black rot infection period. Rally is a sterol inhibitor (DMI) fungicide, and powdery mildew resistance to the DMI fungicides is common where they have been used for several years. Use a good resistance management strategy in your vineyard by limiting the number of DMI applications to a maximum of 3 per year, and use in a rotational program with other non-DMI powdery mildew fungicides. Rotating with other DMI fungicides is NOT an effective disease resistance management approach. If applied at the powdery mildew control rate of 4 oz per acre, a 20 oz container will cover 5 acres of vineyard with a single application. Although the label permits the use of 1.5 lb product per season (6 applications at the 4 oz rate), it is highly recommended that a maximum of 3 applications of all DMI fungicides be used per season in a rotation with other effective powdery mildew fungicides. This product is sold as a 20 oz package containing 5 – 4 oz water soluble packets. 12 hour REI, 14 day PHI.

Mettle 125 ME Fungicide (tetraconazole), EPA# 80289-8, READ THE LABEL

Mettle provides effective control of black rot, anthracnose, and powdery mildew with post-infection, antisporulant, and limited protectant activity, with moderate risk of disease resistance development. Apply Mettle at 3 to 5 fl oz per acre per application and a maximum of 3 applications and 10 fl oz.per season. For powdery mildew control, apply on a protective schedule with applications made 14 days (preferable in most circumstances) to 21 days apart. For black rot control, apply on a 14 day schedule, OR within 72 hours of the start of an infection period, but not within 14 days of a previous application. Tebuconazole is a sterol inhibitor (DMI) fungicide, and powdery mildew resistance to the DMI fungicides is common where they have been used for several years. Use a good resistance management strategy in your vineyard by limiting the number of DMI applications to a maximum of 3 per year, and use a rotational program with other non-DMI powdery mildew fungicides. Rotating with other DMI fungicides is NOT an effective disease resistance management approach. If applied at its recommended use rate of 3 to 5 fl oz. per acre, a 30 fl oz container will spray 6 to 10 acres of vineyard with a single application. 12 hour REI (7 day reentry for certain activities in table grapes), 14 day PHI.

Revus Top (difenoconazole + mandipropamid), EPA# 100-1278, READ THE LABEL

Revus Top contains two unrelated active ingredients, difenoconazole and manipropamid, with a moderate risk of disease resistance development. Difenoconazole is a sterol inhibitor (DMI) fungicide that provides very good to excellent activity against powdery mildew, black rot, and anthracnose with limited protectant, post-infection, and antisporulant activity, with moderate risk of disease resistance development. Manipropamid, the active ingredient in Revus, provides excellent control of downy mildew with protectant, some post-infection, and perhaps some antisporulant activity, with moderate risk of disease resistance development. Apply Revus Top at 7 fl oz per acre per application, and no more than 28 fl oz per acre per season. Add a non-ionic/penetrating surfactant as per label instructions. Make no more than 2 consecutive applications before switching to other fungicides effective against powdery mildew and downy mildew. Rotating with other DMI fungicides is NOT an effective disease resistance management approach. Evaluations by Wayne Wilcox, Cornell University, indicate that the DMI component in Revus Top, difenoconazole, is much more active against powdery mildew than the other DMI fungicides. However, note that Revus Top cannot be used on Concord, Concord Seedless, and Thomcord (causes injury) and that injury may occur on certain other native and hybrid cultivars including Brianna, Canadice, Frontenac, Glenora, Noiret, Skujinsh 675, and St. Croix. Injury is worse when the fungicide is mixed with surfactants or other oils that promote absorption into the vines. Although the label permits the use of 28 fl oz per season (4 applications at the 7 oz rate), it is highly recommended that a maximum of 3 applications of all DMI fungicides be used per season in a rotation with other effective powdery mildew fungicides. If applied at its use rate of 7 oz per acre, a 2.5 gallon container of Revus Top will cover 45.7 acres of vineyard with a single application. 12 hour REI, 14 day PHI.

Abound Flowable Fungicide (azoxystrobin), EPA# 100-1098, READ THE LABEL

Abound provides very effective control of powdery mildew, downy mildew, and black rot, moderate control of Phomopsis, and slight control of Botrytis, with a high risk of disease resistance development. Apply Abound at 10 to 15.5 fl oz per acre. Abound is a strobilurin fungicide, and powdery mildew and downy mildew resistance to the strobilurins is known to occur widely in the Eastern United States. A maximum of 92.3 fl oz of product can be used per season, consult the label for details. Do not use more than 2 sequential applications. It is highly recommended to limit applications of strobilurin fungicides to a maximum of 2 per season, rotate them with other unrelated fungicides, and tank mix with sulfur on non-sulfur-sensitive varieties. If applied at a typical use rate of 11 to 15 fl oz per acre, a 1 gal container of Abound will cover 8.5 to 11.6 acres of vineyard with a single application.  IMPORTANT NOTE: Abound is EXTREMELY phytotoxic to certain apple varieties. Do not spray Abound where spray drift may reach apple trees. Do not use spray equipment which has been previously used to apply Abound to spray apple trees, as even trace amounts can cause unacceptable phytotoxicity to certain apple and crabapple varieties. Use of Abound through airblast application equipment on grapes is prohibited in the following townships and boroughs of Erie County, Pennsylvania: North East, Harborcreek, Lawrence Park, Erie, Presque Isle, MillCreek, Fairview, Girard, and Springfield – this prohibition is intended to help eliminate phytotoxicity problems with apples observed in this geographic location. 4 hour REI, 14 day PHI.

Pristine Fungicide (pyraclostrobin + boscalid), EPA#7969-199, READ THE LABEL

Pristine contains two unrelated active ingredients, pyraclostrobin and boscalid, with a high risk of disease resistance development. Pyraclostrobin is a strobilurin fungicide that provides excellent activity against downy mildew and powdery mildew, very good activity against black rot, some activity against Phomopsis, and fair activity against Botrytis at higher rates. It also provides very good control of bitter rot and ripe rot, and some suppression of the sour rot disease complex. Boscalid provides excellent control of powdery mildew, and fair to excellent control of Botrytis, depending on the use rate. Thus, Pristine provides excellent control of downy mildew, powdery mildew, and black rot, fair to good control of Phomopsis, fair control of Botrytis at the 8 to 12.5 oz per acre application rate, and good to excellent control of Botrytis at the 19 oz per acre rate. Pristine is phytotoxic on Concord and Noiret, so should not be used on these varieties. It should also be used with caution on Steuben and Rougheon, where injury has occurred irregularly. Powdery mildew and downy mildew resistance to the strobilurin fungicides is known to occur widely in the Eastern United States. The boscalid component of Pristine is also at risk for powdery mildew resistance development. In order to minimize the resistance development of Pristine where it has not already occurred, limit applications of Pristine and strobilurin fungicides to a maximum of 2 per season, rotate them with other unrelated fungicides, and tank mix with sulfur on non-sulfur-sensitive varieties. Pristine is sold as a 7.5 lb. (120 oz.) container, so a container will spray approximately 6 to 15 acres of vineyard with a single application, depending on the application rate. 12 hour/5 day REI (see label for details), 14 day PHI.

Quintec (quinoxyfen), EPA# 62719-375, READ THE LABEL

Quintec provides excellent protectant control but no post-infection or eradicant control of powdery mildew, with moderate risk of disease resistance development. Apply at 3 to 6.6 fl oz per acre per application (the 3 to 4 fl oz rate is recommended in New York State at no more than 14 day intervals), and no more than 33 fluid ounces per acre per season. Quintec is unrelated to any other grape fungicide registered in North America, so it controls powdery mildew colonies that are resistant to other fungicides and is useful in a powdery mildew resistance-management program. However, Quintec is at risk for disease resistance development, so it should be used no more than 2 or 3 times per season in a rotational program with other effective powdery mildew fungicides. If applied at a typical use rate of 4 fl oz per acre, a 30 fl oz container will cover 7.5 acres of vineyard with a single application. 12 hour REI, 14 day PHI.

Vivando Fungicide (metrafenone), EPA# 7969-284, READ THE LABEL

Vivando provides excellent control of powdery mildew with protectant, post-infection, and antisporulant activity, with moderate to high risk of disease resistance development. Apply at 10.3 to 15.4 fl oz per acre per application on a 14 to 21 day schedule (use of the lower rate on a 14 day schedule is typical in New York State), and no more than 46.2 fl oz per acre per season. Do not make more than 2 sequential applications before alternating with another effective powdery mildew fungicide, and do not make more than 3 applications per season. The minimum interval between applications is 14 days. Vivando is unrelated to any other fungicide product currently in the market, so use in a rotational program with other effective powdery mildew fungicides is a good resistance management strategy. If applied at the low use rate of 10.3 fl oz per acre, a 1 gallon container will cover 12.4 acres of vineyard with a single application. 12 hour REI, 14 day PHI.

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Additional Fungicides

Ranman Fungicide 50 WG (cyazofamid), EPA# 71512-3-279, READ THE LABEL

Ranman provides good to very good control of downy mildew with protectant, antisporulant, and perhaps limited post-infection activity, with high risk of disease resistance development. Ranman represents a new class of chemistry for use in grapes, and should be used in a rotational program with other downy mildew fungicides. Apply at 2.1 to 2.75 fl oz per acre per application, and no more than 6 applications per season. Alternate Ranman with another downy mildew fungicide with a different mode of action. Do not make more than 3 consecutive applications of Ranman followed by at least 3 applications of fungicides having different modes of action before applying additional Ranman. Depending on the use rate, a 1 qt container will cover approximately 12 to 15 acres of vineyard with a single application. 12 hour REI, 30 day PHI.

Revus Fungicide (mandipropamid), EPA# 100-1254, READ THE LABEL

Revus provides excellent control of downy mildew with protectant, some post-infection, and perhaps some antisporulant activity, with moderate risk of disease resistance development. Revus is a new fungicide for use in grapes, and should be used in a rotational program with other downy mildew fungicides. Apply at 8 fl oz per acre per application, and no more than 32 fl oz per acre per season. Make no more than 2 consecutive applications before switching to another effective downy mildew fungicide. If applied at the recommended use rate of 8 fl oz per acre, a 1 gallon container will cover 16 acres of vineyard with a single application. 4 hour REI, 14 day PHI.

Ridomil Gold MZ WG (mefanoxam + mancozeb), EPA# 100-1269, READ THE LABEL

Ridomil Gold MZ contains two unrelated active ingredients, mefanoxam and mancozeb, with a high risk of disease resistance development. Mefanoxam provides excellent activity against downy mildew with protectant, post-infection, and antisporulant activity. Mancozeb is included in Ridomil Gold MZ to decrease the likelihood of downy mildew resistance development. Apply Ridomil Gold MZ at 2.5 lb per acre per application, and no more than 10 lb per acre per season, but the use of no more than 2 applications of any Ridomil products is highly recommended in order to decrease the risk of developing disease resistance. Ridomil Gold MZ contains the equivalent of 2 lb per acre of 75 DF mancozeb products. If black rot and Phomopsis control are desired, supplement with additional mancozeb up to the maximum amount permitted per application (add up to 2 additional lb of 75DF mancozeb or equivalent). When applied at its recommended use rate of 2.5 lb per acre, a 5 lb bag of Ridomil Gold MZ will cover 2 acres of vineyard with a single application. 48 hour REI, 66 day PHI.

Microthiol Disperss (sulfur), EPA#70506-187, READ THE LABEL

Sulfur provides protectant, post-infection, anti-sporulant, and some eradicant control of powdery mildew, with low risk of disease development, and is OMRI listed. Apply 3 to 10 lb per acre (application rates of 4 to 5 lb are typical, but higher rates can provide longer control). Some cultivars may be injured by sulfur applications, consult information in the “Grapevine Variety Characteristics Chart” or university pest management guidelines for varietal sensitivity to sulfur. Sulfur injury may be greater when air temperatures are above 85-90°F at the time of application. Tank mixing sulfur with other powdery mildew fungicides is a sound disease resistance management strategy. When applied at its recommended application rate of 3 to 10 lb per acre, a 30 lb bag of Microthiol Disperss will cover 3 to 10 acres of vineyard with a single application and can be applied every 7 to 14 days as needed, but applications near harvest should be avoided to avoid sulfur odors in finished wine. 24 hour REI, 0 day PHI.

JMS Stylet Oil (paraffinic oil), EPA# 65564-1, READ THE LABEL

JMS Stylet Oil provides post-infection, antisporulant, and eradicant activity, and modest protectant activity, against powdery mildew, with low risk of disease resistance development. Use in a 1 to 2% solution, and do not concentrate beyond 2% (2 gal product per 100 gallons). JMS Stylet Oil provides significant eradicant activity against existing powdery mildew infections, but thorough spray coverage is essential for effective control. Follow label precautions for use with copper hydroxide, mancozeb, and Ridomil. Do not tank mix with spreader stickers or certain highly ionized nutrient spray materials. Do not use captan with or following an oil spray. Do not use copper and oil together when fruit is present. Do not apply sulfur within 10 days of an oil spray. 4 hour REI, 0 day PHI.

Nutrol (potassium dihydrogen phosphate), EPA# 70644-1, READ THE LABEL

Nutrol provides post-infection, antisporulant, and limited eradicant control of powdery mildew, with low risk of disease resistance development. It provides no protective activity, but significant post-infection activity when applied within a week after the start of an infection. Apply 5-10 lb per acre per application, using a maximum 3 lb product per 10 gal. Nutrol is relatively ineffective at eradicating well-established powdery mildew infections. It is most effective when applied with short (7-day) intervals when applied sequentially, and can be used in a tank mix with other powdery mildew fungicides. For best results, apply with a non-ionic surfactant such as Induce. When applied at its recommended use rate, a 50 lb bag of Nutrol will cover 5 to 10 acres of vineyard with a single application. 4 hour REI, 0 day PHI.

Phostrol Agricultural Fungicide (phosphorous acid), EPA#55146-83, READ THE LABEL

Phostrol provides moderate protectant, post-infection, and antisporulant control of downy mildew, with moderate risk of resistance development. Apply at 2.5 to 5 pt per acre per application. Protective activity against infections is limited to 3 to 5 days after application, with significant post-infection and antisporulant activity; spray intervals should not exceed 10 days during periods of wet weather. Downy mildew resistance is known to occur in many growing regions. Do not apply Phostrol in more than 2 consecutive applications before rotating with another downy mildew fungicide, and do not apply more than 4 times per season. Some varieties are susceptible to leaf burn, test for sensitivity prior to use. When applied at its recommended use rate of 2.5 to 5 pt per acre, a 2.5 gal container of Phostrol will cover 4 to 8 acres of vineyard with a single application. 4 hour REI, 0 day PHI.

Champ Formula 2 Flowable (copper hydroxide), EPA# 55146-64, READ THE LABEL

Copper fungicides provide good activity against downy mildew, some activity against powdery mildew (but should not be relied upon for powdery mildew control on susceptible varieties), and only moderate control of black rot, with low risk of disease resistance development. Apply at 1.33 to 2.66 pt Champ Formula 2 Flowable per acre per application, do not apply more than 55 pints per acre per season. Slight to severe foliar injury may occur in copper-sensitive varieties, use the lower rate of this product and test for copper sensitivity when treating copper sensitive varieties. Hydrated lime may be added at 0.5 lb per 100 gal of spray solution to decrease the severity of phytotoxicity. Consult university spray guidelines for varietal sensitivity to copper. Slow drying conditions (cool or humid) may increase copper sensitivity; apply when foliage is dry and drying conditions are good. When applied at its recommended use rate of 1.33 to 2.66 pt per acre, a 2.5 gal container of Champ Formula 2 will cover 7.5 to 15 acres of vineyard with a single application. 48 hour REI, 0 day PHI.

DuPont Kocide 3000 Dry Flowable 10 lbs (copper hydroxide), EPA#352-662, READ THE LABEL

DuPont Kocide 3000 Dry Flowable 4 lbs (copper hydroxide), EPA#352-662, READ THE LABEL

Copper fungicides provide good activity against downy mildew, some activity against powdery mildew (but should not be relied upon for powdery mildew control on susceptible varieties), and only moderate control of black rot, with low risk of disease resistance development. Apply at 0.75-1.75 lb Kocide 3000 per acre per application, do not apply more than 66.7 lb per season. Foliar injury may result on copper sensitive varieties, either test for sensitivity or add 1 to 3 lb hydrated lime per pound of product to decrease the severity of phytotoxicity. Slight to severe foliar injury may occur in copper-sensitive varieties, use the lower rate of this product and test for copper sensitivity when treating copper sensitive varieties. Consult university pest management guidelines for varietal sensitivity to copper. Slow drying conditions (cool or humid) may increase copper sensitivity; apply when foliage is dry and drying conditions are good. When applied at its recommended use rate of 0.75 to 1.75 lb per acre, a 4 lb bag will cover approximately 2 ¼ to 5 1/3 acres of vineyard with a single application, and a 10 lb bag will cover 5.7 to 13.3 acres in a single application. 48 hour REI, 0 day PHI.

Elevate 50WDG Fungicide (fenhexamid), EPA# 66330-35, READ THE LABEL

Elevate provides very effective control of Botrytis. Apply at 1 lb per acre per application, do not make more than 2 consecutive applications, and do not apply more than 3 lb product per acre per season. Like most Botrytis fungicides, Elevate is prone to developing disease resistance. For best results, use Elevate in a rotational program with other Botrytis-specific fungicides, and limit applications to 2 or (preferably) 1 application per season to avoid the development of disease resistant strains of Botrytis. When applied at its recommended use rate of 1 lb per acre, a 2 lb bag will cover 2 acres of vineyard with a single application. 12 hour REI, 0 day PHI.

Rovral Brand 4 Flowable Fungicide (iprodione), EPA# 264-482, READ THE LABEL

Rovral provides effective control of Botrytis with protectant, post-infection, and antisporulant activity, but like most Botrytis fungicides, it is very prone to developing disease resistance. Apply Rovral at 1 to 2 pt per acre per application during early to mid-bloom, and 1.5 to 2 pt later in the season. Four applications per season are permitted on the label, but the use of only one application of Rovral per season is highly recommended, as is the use of at least one application of another effective Botrytis fungicide. When applied at the recommended use rate of 1 to 2 pt per acre, a 1 gal container of Rovral will cover 10 to 20 acres of vineyard with a single application. 48 hour REI, 7 day PHI.

Vangard WG Fungicide (cyprodinil), EPA# 100-828, READ THE LABEL

Vangard provides effective control of Botrytis with protectant, post-infection, and antisporulant activity, but like most Botrytis fungicides, is prone to developing disease resistance. Apply Vangard at 10 oz per acre per application. 3 applications per season are permitted on the label, but the use of no more than 2 applications per season are highly recommended in a rotational program with other effective and unrelated botrytis fungicides. When applied at its recommended use rate of 10 oz per acre, a 50 oz container of Vangard will cover 5 acres of vineyard with a single application. 12 hour REI, 7 day PHI.

SAMPLE DISEASE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS FOR VINEYARDS

Vineyard disease management programs are based on several factors including variety, location, climate, seasonal weather conditions, prior disease history, and grower tolerance for risk. While it is impossible to suggest a spray program in advance of seasonal conditions for any given location, we can offer some guidance by providing examples of successful spray programs that we have used in the past. The following SAMPLE disease management programs are based on those used in our vineyards in recent years for Concord, Vidal, and Pinot Gris. Once again, we must stress that these are SAMPLE spray programs that are included in this article to illustrate successful disease management programs used in our vineyards, and they are not intended as recommended spray programs under any circumstances.

Target pests include Phomopsis (PH), black rot (BR), downy mildew (DM), powdery mildew (PM), Botrytis (BOT)

Sample disease management program for Concord

Sample disease management program for Vidal

Sample disease management program for Pinot Gris

 

INSECTICIDES

Insecticide efficacy in controlling grape insects is listed in the following table:

Insecticide Chart

Assail 30SG Insecticide (acetamiprid), EPA# 8033-36-70506, READ THE LABEL

Assail controls many insects including leafhoppers, grape berry moth, mealybug, grape phylloxera (aerial form only), banded grape bug, rose chafer, and Japanese beetle. Apply at 2.5 to 5.3 fl oz per acre per application. Begin applications when treatment thresholds have been reached. Do not make more than 2 applications per season, do not apply more than once every 14 days, and do not use spray adjuvants. When used at its recommended use rate of 2.5 to 5.3 fl. oz. per acre, a 1 quart container of Assail will cover 6 to 12.8 acres of vineyard with a single application. 12 hour REI, 3 day PHI.

Delegate WG (spinetoram), EPA# 62719-541, READ THE LABEL

Delegate controls several insects including cutworm, grape berry moth, and thrips. Apply at 3 to 5 oz per acre per application, but do not make more than 5 applications per calendar year and do not apply more than 19.5 ounces per acre per year. Do not make more than 2 consecutive applications, if additional treatments are required rotate to another class of effective insecticide for at least one application. When used at its recommended use rate of 3 to 5 ounces per acre, a 26 oz. container of Delegate will cover 6.4 to 8.7 acres of vineyard with a single application. 4 hour REI, 7 day PHI.

Drexel Carbaryl 4L(carbaryl), EPA# 19713-49, READ THE LABEL

Carbaryl is a broad-spectrum insecticide that provides control of many insect including Japanese beetle, grape leafhopper, grape berry moth, climbing cutworms, grape flea beetle, rose chafer, and other insects. Apply 1 to 2 qt per acre per application, consult the label for rate recommendations. Up to 5 applications per season are permitted with a minimum of 7 days between applications. Begin application when insect populations reach recognized economic threshold levels. Consult cooperative extension service, consultants or other qualified authorities to determine appropriate threshold levels and timing for treatment in your area. When used at its recommended use rate of 1 to 2 qt per acre, a 2.5 gallon container of Carbaryl will cover 5 to 10 acres of vineyard with a single application. 48 hour REI, 7 day PHI.

Movento (spirotetramat), EPA# 264-1050, READ THE LABEL

Movento is a systemic insecticide that controls mealybugs, phylloxera, and whiteflies, and suppresses nematodes. Apply 6 to 8 fl oz per acre per application and a maximum of 12.5 fl oz per acre per season; the minimum interval between applications is 30 days. The label recommends the addition of a spreading-penetrating adjuvant (such as Sure-Spred HV); the use of Induce adjuvant is prohibited when fruit is present. When used at its recommended use rate of 6 to 8 fl oz per acre, a 1 quart container of Movento will cover 4 to 5.3 acres of vineyard with a single application. 24 hour REI, 7 day PHI.

M-Pede (insecticidal soap), EPA# 62719-515, READ THE LABEL

M-Pede controls or suppresses some insects such as leafhoppers, mealybugs, and some mite species. Apply at 1 to 2% v/v solution (for example, 1 to 2 gal. M-Pede in 100 gal of spray solution). Apply to wet and minimize runoff as excessive water volumes will increase the potential for fruit injury. To reduce the potential for fruit injury, do not apply in greater than 75 gallons of water per acre on table grapes after berries are 6 to 7 mm in diameter. 12 hour REI, 0 day PHI.

 

HERBICIDES

Herbicide Chart

Weeds can compete with grapevines for water and nutrients resulting in reduced vine capacity. Chemical herbicides can be used to minimize weed competition in vineyards, but it is imperative that herbicide label restrictions and precautions be observed in order to avoid injury or damage to vines. Prevention is Better than Cure – Minimizing Herbicide Drift in the Vineyard describes the potential for herbicide injury in vineyards and how to avoid it by following product labels and by reducing herbicide drift through proper nozzle selection and the use of shielded herbicide applicators.

Herbicides used to control vineyard weeds are listed in the following table:

Bonide Kleen Up Weed & Grass Killer (glyphosate), EPA#4-484, READ THE LABEL

Kleen Up is a glyphosate product for use in home gardens, including grapes. Consult the label for specific recommendations.

Mad Dog Plus (glyphosate), EPA# 34704-890, READ THE LABEL

Mad Dog Plus contains 4 lb per gallon of the active ingredient glyphosate, in the form of its isopropylamine salt. Mad Dog Plus provides post-emergence, systemic control of most annual and perennial weeds in bearing and nonbearing vineyards where contact with green grape foliage can be avoided. Glyphosate is primarily absorbed through mature leaves, and it moves systemically through the plant to other plant parts including the roots, and can cause serious injury to grapevines if applied in that manner. Consult the label to determine the proper use rate for specific situations including weed species present, growth stage, and environmental factors. A maximum of 10.6 qt Mad Dog Plus, including the equivalent amount of other glyphosate products, can be applied per acre per season. Mad Dog Plus can be tank mixed with certain pre-emergence herbicides registered for use in grapes when following all product label restrictions – consult the label for a list of permissible tank mix partners. 4 hour REI, 14 day PHI.

Forfeit 280 (glufosinate), EPA# 34704-1080

Forfeit 280 contains 2.34 lb of the active ingredient glufosinate-ammonium per gal. It is a non-selective, post-emergence herbicide used primarily in LibertyLink cropping systems, and is also registered for use in grape. Unlike glyphosate herbicides, Forfeit 280 is a contact, burndown herbicide that is not translocated to underground plant parts, so is a useful alternative to glyphosate for late spring and summer applications when glyphosate contact with foliage must be avoided to minimize the risk of injury or damage to grapevines. For best results, apply to emerged, young, actively growing weeds. Warm temperatures, high humidity, and bright sunlight improve the performance of Forfeit 280. Avoid direct spray or drift to desirable vegetation. Avoid contact of spray, drift, or mist with green bark, stems, or foliage, as injury may occur. Forfeit 280 is labeled for grapevine sucker control when applied to suckers 12” long or less. For sucker control, make two applications about 4 weeks apart at 56 fl oz per acre sprayed. Thorough coverage is needed for good control. For weed control, apply 48 to 82 fl oz per acre depending on weed height – consult the label for specific recommendations. Do not apply more than 246 fl oz Forfeit 280 per year in grapes (a maximum of 3 applications at the 82 fl oz rate are permitted). Directed applications made with a backpack sprayer should be made at 1.7fl oz Forfeit 280 per gal spray solution. Observe personal protective requirements on the label including coveralls, chemical resistant gloves and footwear, and protective eyewear. 12 hour REI, 14 day PHI. Not for use in Nassau and Suffolk Counties in New York.

Chateau Herbicide WDG (flumioxazin), EPA# 59639-119, READ THE LABEL

Chateau provides pre-emergence, residual control of most annual broadleaf weeds and grasses. Apply 6 to 12 oz per acre surface sprayed per application (for example, when spraying a 3’ band in 9’ rows, one acre surface sprayed equals 3 acres of vineyard). Two applications per season are allowed up to 24 oz per acre per season, but sequential applications must be at least 30 days apart. Consult the label for restrictions for use on vines less than 3 years of age. Avoid spray contact to foliage and green bark, with the exception of undesirable suckers. Applications made after bud break require shielded applications. Chateau provides some post-emergence activity on many weeds and grapevine suckers, however, it should be tank mixed with a labeled post-emergence herbicide for control of emerged weeds. Chateau can be tank mixed with other pre- and post-emergence herbicides registered for use in grapes when following all product label restrictions. In western New York, the typical use rate of Chateau is 12 oz per sprayed acre, applied either as a single application or as a split application at least 30 days apart. At 12 oz per acre, a 40 oz container of Chateau will cover 3.3 acres of land surface sprayed, or 10 acres of vineyard when a 3’ spray band is applied in a vineyard with 9’ row spacing. 12 hour REI, 60 day PHI.

Diuron 4L (diuron), EPA# 66222-54, READ THE LABEL

Diuron provides pre-emergence, residual control of many annual broadleaf weeds and grasses in established vineyards. Apply as a band treatment to established vineyards at least 3 years old. Do not apply more than 4 qt per acre surface sprayed per application with a maximum of 2 applications per year. Consult the label for additional restrictions for use on soils low in clay or organic matter. Sequential treatments must be applied at least 90 days apart. Diuron can be tank mixed with other pre- and post-emergence herbicides registered for use in grapes when following all product label restrictions. When used at its maximum use rate of 4 qt per acre, a 2.5 gallon container of Diuron 4L will cover 2.5 acres of land surface sprayed, or 7.5 acres of vineyard when a 3’ spray band is applied in a vineyard with 9’ row spacing. 12 hour REI, 0 day PHI.

Parrot DF (diuron), EPA# 66222-51, READ THE LABEL

Parrot contains the active ingredient diuron, and provides pre-emergence, residual control of many annual broadleaf weeds and grasses in established vineyards. Apply as a band treatment to established vineyards at least 3 years old. Do not apply more than 5 lb per acre surface sprayed per application with a maximum of 2 applications per year. Consult the label for additional restrictions for use on soils low in clay or organic matter. Sequential treatments must be applied at least 90 days apart. Parrot can be tank mixed with other pre- and post-emergence herbicides registered for use in grapes when following all product label restrictions. When used at its maximum use rate of 5 lb per acre, a 5 lb bag of Parrot DF will cover 1 acre of land surface sprayed, or 3 acres of vineyard when a 3’ spray band is applied in a vineyard with 9’ row spacing. 12 hour REI, 0 day PHI.

Drexel Simazine 4L Herbicide (simazine), EPA# 19713-060, READ THE LABEL

Simazine provides pre-emergence, residual control of annual broadleaf weeds, and early season control of annual grasses, in established vineyards. Apply 2 to 4 qt per acre surface sprayed per calendar year. Do not apply more than once per calendar year. Do not use in vineyards established less than 3 years or crop injury may occur. Simazine can be tank mixed with other pre- and post-emergence herbicides registered for use in grapes when following all product label restrictions. When used at its maximum use rate of 4 qt per acre, a 2.5 gallon container of Simazine 4L will cover 2.5 acres of land surface sprayed, or 7.5 acres of vineyard when a 3’ spray band is applied in a vineyard with 9’ row spacing. 12 hour REI, 0 day PHI.

Simtrol 90 DF (simazine), EPA# 35915-12-60063, READ THE LABEL

Simazine provides pre-emergence, residual control of annual broadleaf weeds, and early season control of annual grasses, in established vineyards. Apply 2.2 to 4.4 lb per acre surface sprayed per calendar year. Do not apply more than twice per calendar year and do not apply more than 4.4 lb per calendar year. Do not use in vineyards established less than 3 years or crop injury may occur. Simazine can be tank mixed with other pre- and post-emergence herbicides registered for use in grapes when following all product label restrictions. When used at its maximum use rate of 4.4 lb per acre, a 10 lb. bag of Simtrol 90 DF will cover approximately 2 ¼ acres of land surface sprayed, or approximately 6.8 acres of vineyard when a 3’ spray band is applied in a vineyard with 9’ row spacing. 12 hour REI, 0 day PHI.

Prowl H20 Herbicide (pendimethalin), EPA # 241-418, READ THE LABEL

Prowl H20 provides pre-emergence, residual control of annual grasses, and control or suppression of some annual broadleaf weeds in bearing and non-bearing vineyards. Apply 3.2 to 6.3 qt per acre surface sprayed, either in a single application or sequentially with an interval of 30 days or more, with a maximum of 6.3 qt per acre surface sprayed per season. For newly transplanted and one year grapevines, apply only when vines are dormant. Prowl H20 can be tank mixed with other pre- and post-emergence herbicides registered for use in grapes when following all product label restrictions. When applied at a rate of 6 qt per acre, a 2.5 gallon container of Prowl H20 will cover 1 2/3 acre of land surface sprayed, or 5 acres of vineyard when a 3’ spray band is applied in a vineyard with 9’ row spacing. 24 hour REI, 90 day PHI.

Solicam DF (norflurazon), EPA# 100-849, READ THE LABEL

SOLICAM IS NOT REGISTERED FOR USE IN NASSAU AND SUFFOLK COUNTIES IN NEW YORK STATE

Solicam provides pre-emergence, residual control of annual grasses, suppression of perennial grasses, and control or suppression of some annual broadleaf weeds in established vineyards. Apply 1.25 to 5 lb per acre surface sprayed, depending on soil type; consult the label for specific recommendations. Multiple or sequential applications can be made, but the total quantity of Solicam applied during a year must not exceed the maximum recommended rate for the soil type. Solicam can be tank mixed with other pre- and post-emergence herbicides registered for use in grapes when following all product label restrictions. 12 hour REI, 60 day PHI.

Surflan AS Agricultural Herbicide (oryzalin), EPA# 70506-43, READ THE LABEL

Surflan provides pre-emergence, residual control of annual grasses and some control or suppression of some annual broadleaf weeds in bearing and nonbearing vineyards. Apply 2 to 6 qt per acre surface sprayed per application, depending on the length of weed control desired. Multiple applications are allowed per season, with a minimum of 2.5 months between applications, not to exceed 12 qt per acre per year. Do not use on soils containing more than 5% organic matter. Do not apply to newly planted vines until soil has settled. Surflan can be tank mixed with other pre- and post-emergence herbicides registered for use in grapes when following all product label restrictions. When applied at its maximum use rate of 6 qt per acre, a 2.5 gal container of Surflan AS will cover 1 2/3 acre of land surface sprayed, or 5 acres of vineyard when a 3’ spray band is applied in a vineyard with 9’ row spacing. 24 hour REI, 0 day PHI.

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