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|Primary Use||Table, Wine|
|Variety Origin||University of Minnesota|
|Parents||MN 78 x Rubilande|
|Pseudonym (Tested As)||ES 439|
|Harvest Season||Mid Season|
|USDA Hardiness Zone||4|
|Sulfur Sensitivity||Not susceptible|
|Suggested Distance Between Vines||6 ft - 8 ft|
|Vine Training System||Top Wire Cordon|
|Bud Break||5-7 Days after Concord|
|Black Rot||Slightly susceptible|
|Downy Mildew||Highly susceptible|
|Powdery Mildew||Moderately susceptible|
Top Wire Cordon is arguably the most efficient training system for grapes, especially for procumbent or downward growing cultivators, especially those not prone to late season fruit rots due to shading of the fruiting zone. Summer labor is much less than that required with Vertical Shoot Positioned (VSP) training as shoot positioning and leaf pulling are generally not required.