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|Grape Color||Blue, Black|
|Variety Origin||French Origin|
|Parents||Magdeleine Noire des Charentes x Cabernet Franc|
|Pseudonym (Tested As)||Not Applicable|
|Harvest Season||Mid Season|
|USDA Hardiness Zone||7|
|Sulfur Sensitivity||Not susceptible|
|Suggested Distance Between Vines||4 ft - 6 ft|
|Vine Training System||Vertical Shoot Positioning|
|Bud Break||Data Unavailable|
|Black Rot||Highly susceptible|
|Downy Mildew||Highly susceptible|
|Powdery Mildew||Highly susceptible|
Vertical shoot positioned (VSP) training is used primarily for upright-growing cultivators, especially those that benefit from improved exposure to sunlight that minimizes summer fruit rots and/or increases potential wine quality. As compared with Top Wire Cordon (TWC) training, VSP is much more labor-intensive due to the need for summer shoot positioning, leaf removal, and summer (top) hedging. VSP training employ a fruiting wire at 30-36", and usually three sets of catch wires at 10-12" intervals above the fruiting wire.