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Tempranillo is one of Spain's most important varieties, it can produce wines that are deeply-colored and long-lasting, typically not high in alcohol content.
Pseudonym (Tested As)
USDA Hardiness Zone
7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
Suggested Distance Between Vines
4 ft, 5 ft, 6 ft
Vine Training System
Vertical Shoot Positioning
Vertical Shoot Positioning (VSP)
Vertical shoot positioned (VSP) training is used primarily for
upright-growing cultivators, especially those that benefit from improved
exposure to sunlight that minimizes summer fruit rots and/or increases
potential wine quality. As compared with Top Wire Cordon (TWC) training,
VSP is much more labor-intensive due to the need for summer shoot
positioning, leaf removal, and summer (top) hedging. VSP training employ
a fruiting wire at 30-36", and usually three sets of catch wires at
10-12" intervals above the fruiting wire.
At planting, one or two buds are retained near the graft
union on grafted vines, or near the crown of the vine on
own-rooted vines. Support is provided with a bamboo stake or
other support. For grafted vines, the graft union should be
planted above the ground so the scion variety does not
produce roots. Where winter graft union protection is needed
in order to prevent winter injury, it is critical that the
graft union be planted close to the ground (1-2" above final
ground level), with graft unions covered with soil or other
insulating material during the winter months.
One cane is retained from the previous year's growth. This
cane can be pruned and tied to the bottom wire, or a lower
cane can be trained on the fruiting wire. A second trunk can
be started by leaving a short spur at the base of the vine,
just above the graft union on grafted vines, or just above
ground level on own-rooted vines. In Year Two, crop should
be limited by cluster thinning or de-fruiting in order to
encourage vegetative growth.
Single cane can be pruned and trained in each direction from
the head of the vine for cane-pruned systems (right side of
diagram), or, spur-pruned cordons can be retained for
spur-pruned systems (left side diagram). In either case,
three to five buds are retained per foot of row (for
example, 18 to 30 buds are retained on vines spaced six feet
apart within the row). Where possible, shoots emerging from
cane growth below the fruiting wire should be removed to
avoid overcrowding and shading at the head of the vine, but
on cane-pruned systems, one or two shoots should be retained
below the fruiting wire as renewal canes for the subsequent
year's growth. During the growing season, shoots are
manually "tucked" or shoot positioned between the sets of
catch wires. Shoots that emerge through the top set of catch
wires are summer pruned to encourage upright growth and
minimize the shading at the fruiting zone. Third year vines
should yield between one-half and a full crop, depending on
the amount of trellis fill achieved. Vines that achieve full
trellis fill can be fully cropped (as appropriate for the
variety and desired wine quality attributes), while weaker
vines may require some fruit removal by cluster thinning so
that vines are not over-cropped.
Canes or cordons should be fully established and annual
growth should fill the available trellis space. Depending on
the variety, wine quality may be improved by reducing crop
load, usually by removing second and/or third clusters on
developing shoots. In regions where winter injury to trunks
is anticipated, new trunks can be trained by retaining one
or more suckers annually, and used to replace older,