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|Grape Color||Blue, Black|
|Variety Origin||United States|
|Parents||Vitis vinifera x V. aestavalis|
|Pseudonym (Tested As)||Jacques, Lenoir|
|Harvest Season||Early Season|
|USDA Hardiness Zone||5|
|Sulfur Sensitivity||Not susceptible|
|Suggested Distance Between Vines||8 ft|
|Vine Training System||Top Wire Cordon|
|Bud Break||Data Unavailable|
|Black Rot||Moderately susceptible|
|Downy Mildew||Moderately susceptible|
|Powdery Mildew||Slightly susceptible|
Top Wire Cordon is arguably the most efficient training system for grapes, especially for procumbent or downward growing cultivators, especially those not prone to late season fruit rots due to shading of the fruiting zone. Summer labor is much less than that required with Vertical Shoot Positioned (VSP) training as shoot positioning and leaf pulling are generally not required.